A true guru is, asserts Kula-Arnava, one who lives the simple virtuous life he preaches, is stable and firm in his knowledge, master yogi with the knowledge of Self (soul) and Brahman (ultimate reality). This includes the student's past and present knowledge, want of previous knowledge of what constitutes subjects of discrimination and rules of reasoning, behavior such as unrestrained conduct and speech, courting popularity, vanity of his parentage, ethical flaws that are means contrary to those causes. William Johnston (2013), Encyclopedia of Monasticism, Routledge. Gurus who rob their disciples of their wealth are numerous. The teacher is one who is endowed with the power of furnishing arguments pro and con, of understanding questions [of the student], and remembers them. Miri-Piri. Guru is the One who dispels the darkness of ignorance, the one who points the way. [99] The concept of Guru in Sikhism stands on two pillars i.e. Guru is the enlightenment principal that aids one in the realization of the true Self, the whole Self, the holy Self. [89] Initiations or ritual empowerments are necessary before the student is permitted to practice a particular tantra, in Vajrayana Buddhist sects found in Tibet and South Asia. [81] However, various Hindu texts caution prudence and diligence in finding the right guru, and avoiding the wrong ones. 'GU' AND 'RU.' To him who is high-minded, Ek Ong Kar. Guru (/ˈɡuːruː/, UK also /ˈɡʊruː, ˈɡʊər-/; Sanskrit: गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term for a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field. The hymn 4.5.6 of Rigveda, for example, states Joel Mlecko, describes the guru as, "the source and inspirer of the knowledge of the Self, the essence of reality," for one who seeks. MEANING ~ ' TEACHER '' ! The Bhagavad Gita is a dialogue where Krishna speaks to Arjuna of the role of a guru, and similarly emphasizes in verse 4.34 that those who know their subject well are eager for good students, and the student can learn from such a guru through reverence, service, effort and the process of inquiry.[43][44]. [103][104] According to Kent, another reason why this happened so often in the USA then, was because some anti-Vietnam War protesters and political activists became worn out or disillusioned of the possibilities to change society through political means, and as an alternative turned to religious means. [38][52] At the Gurukul, the working student would study the basic traditional vedic sciences and various practical skills-oriented sastras[53] along with the religious texts contained within the Vedas and Upanishads. GURU Meaning: "teacher, priest," from Sanskrit guru-s "one to be honored, teacher," from guru- "venerable, worthy of… See definitions of guru. SS Kumar (2010), Bhakti - the Yoga of Love, LIT Verlag. [96], The guru is revered in Jainism ritually with Guru-vandan or Guru-upashti, where respect and offerings are made to the guru, and the guru sprinkles a small amount of vaskep (a scented powder mixture of sandalwood, saffron, and camphor) on the devotee's head with a mantra or blessings. Meaning of the Sanskrit Word: guru guru —the spiritual master Bg 17.14, SB 6.1.56-57, SB 7.12.2, Adi 1.20, Adi 1.32, Adi 1.45, Adi 1.58, Adi 12.14, Madhya 8.128, Madhya 9.60 (and more...) guru —spiritual master SB 3.7.38, SB 4.22.62, SB 7.13.35, Adi 1.37, Adi 1.44, Adi 3.94, Adi 5.135, Adi 6.30, Adi 6.40, Madhya 6.59 (and more...) Sheldon Pollock (2009), The Language of the Gods in the World of Men, University of California Press. Tradition holds that he traveled throughout India on foot expounding the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta (nondualism), which teaches that the individual soul ( atman) and the Supreme ( Brahman) are one. (Sanskrit Hymn for Peace) for peace. [97], In Sikhism, Guru is the source of all knowledge which is Almighty. [95] In some communities of the Śvētāmbara sect of Jainism, a traditional system of guru-disciple lineage exists. lama nampa shyi) in Tibetan Buddhism: In various Buddhist traditions, there are equivalent words for guru, which include Shastri (teacher), Kalyana Mitra (friendly guide, Pali: Kalyāṇa-mittatā), Acarya (master), and Vajra-Acarya (hierophant). All this is because in his grace lies the source of liberation. E.g., if somebody has mastered yoga, he would be called a Yoga-guru.Ramdev Baba and Ayyangar are famous Yoga-gurus. Guru in Sanskrit refers to a teacher or a guide. Zo krijgt het begrip 'guru' de betekenis van 'groot', 'geweldig' of 'belangrijk', en iets verdergaand krijgt het aspecten van 'eerbiedwaardig' en 'vererenswaardig'. ), Just because someone is charismatic, knowledgeable in their field, or followed by a throng of devotees, does not make them a guru by the true sense of the word. the king of mantras. ਜਵਨ ਕਾਲ ਸਭ ਲੋਕ ਸਵਾਰਾ ॥ ਨਮਸ਼ਕਾਰ ਹੈ ਤਾਹਿ ਹਮਾਰਾ ॥੩੮੪॥ guru translation in English-Sanskrit dictionary. Honest - They are not seeking blind obedience or a cult-like following. "[2] The word has the same meaning in other languages derived from or borrowing words from Sanskrit, such as Hindi, Marathi, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Odia, Bengali, Gujarati and Nepali. But, O Goddess, difficult to find is a guru who removes the disciples' suffering. The original sanskrit text with its translitereated English version and English meaning is given below. [76][77][78], The Advayataraka Upanishad states that the true teacher is a master in the field of knowledge, well-versed in the Vedas, is free from envy, knows yoga, lives a simple life that of a yogi, has realized the knowledge of the Atman (Soul, Self). [102], According to the professor in sociology Stephen A. Kent at the University of Alberta and Kranenborg (1974), one of the reasons why in the 1970s young people including hippies turned to gurus was because they found that drugs had opened for them the existence of the transcendental or because they wanted to get high without drugs. Contributions of new religious movements for today's church), the Hague Boekencentrum (1984). Uppaluri Gopala (U. G.) Krishnamurti (2002) (Revised ed.) [79] Some scriptures and gurus have warned against false teachers, and have recommended that the spiritual seeker test the guru before accepting him. [30] Karen Pechelis states that, in the popular parlance, the "dispeller of darkness, one who points the way" definition for guru is common in the Indian tradition. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. [6] This guru-driven tradition included arts such as sculpture, poetry and music. R    Geoffrey Parrinder (1971), World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present, Hamlyn Publishing, page 254. "[Note 3][Note 4][28], Reender Kranenborg disagrees, stating that darkness and light have nothing to do with the word guru. He is never a transgressor of the rules of conduct, devoid of weaknesses such as ostentation, pride, deceit, cunning, jugglery, jealousy, falsehood, egotism and attachment. Only when someone is completely without egocentric, selfish motives can they possibly guide another from darkness to light of awakening. Jacob Copeman and Aya Ikegame (2012), The Guru in South Asia: New Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Routledge. Guru Purnima is the day when people celebrate and worship Guru Ved Vyas. 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It has been said that your guru will find you when you are ready for your study — your journey — to begin. ਜਵਨ ਕਾਲ ਸਭ ਜਗਤ ਬਨਾਯੋ॥ ਦੇਵ ਦੈਤ ਜੱਛਨ ਉਪਜਾਯੋ ॥ K    Respectful – They will never force their will on anyone or expect someone to renounce his/her free will. He who has highest Bhakti (love, devotion)[40] of Deva (god), [106], According to Kranenborg (1984), Jesus Christ fits the Hindu definition and characteristics of a guru.[107]. "[20] The word has its roots in the Sanskrit gri (to invoke, or to praise), and may have a connection to the word gur, meaning 'to raise, lift up, or to make an effort'. She coaches on the island of O'ahu, and by phone or Skype internationally. Rita Gross (1993), Buddhism After Patriarchy, SUNY Press. [8][59][60] These had a lineage of gurus, who would study and focus on certain schools of Hindu philosophy or trade,[53][54] and these were known as guru-shishya parampara (teacher-student tradition). b. [69], In theory, the early Dharma-sutras and Dharma-sastras, such as Paraskara Grhyasutra, Gautama Smriti and Yajnavalkya smriti, state all four varnas are eligible to all fields of knowledge; while verses of Manusmriti state that Vedic study is available only to men of three varnas, unavailable to Shudra and women. It is also known to be his birthday. B    [82] For example, in Kula-Arnava text states the following guidance: Gurus are as numerous as lamps in every house. [7] These gurus led broad ranges of studies including Hindu scriptures, Buddhist texts, grammar, philosophy, martial arts, music and painting. [83] The attribute of the successful guru is to help make the disciple into another guru, one who transcends him, and becomes a guru unto himself, driven by inner spirituality and principles. #    ਆਦਿ ਅੰਤਿ ਏਕੈ ਅਵਤਾਰਾ॥ ਸੋਈ ਗੁਰੂ ਸਮਝਿਯਹੁ ਹਮਾਰਾ ॥੩੮੫॥. A Guru is one who has immense knowledge, wisdom, and command over a subject and makes use of it to guide his disciples. Terms of Use - Karen Pechelis (2004), The Graceful Guru, Oxford University Press. Al vrij snel word dit toegepast op de 'geestelijk leraar'. Guru Vandanam or guru stotram are Sanskrit stanzas addressed to teacher or guru. (Learn What Makes a True Guru. [21], Sanskrit guru is cognate with Latin gravis 'heavy; grave, weighty, serious'[22] and Greek βαρύς barus 'heavy'. ), Yogapedia Terms:    As a noun the word means the imparter of knowledge (jñāna; also Pali: ñāna). [Note 2] The guru is seen as the one who "dispels the darkness of ignorance. There is one Creator whose name is Truth. ", "[...] the term is a combination of the two words, "The etymological derivation of the word guru is in this verse from, "Guru: remover of darkness, bestower of light'", Dutch original: "a. The word, guru, is a Sanskrit adjective that literally means, "heavy" or "venerable." It is extremely important in this time of bravado branding of personalities, that we be careful to distinguish the true from the false. Kind – They exhibit pure, unconditional love and goodwill for all. They who choose to live in the temples – now a very small minority -chant the. Meaning: Guru’s murti/idol/body is the object of meditation, his feet the objects of worship, his words the objects of chanting. The word guru (Sanskrit: गुरु), a noun, connotes "teacher" in Sanskrit, but in ancient Indian traditions it has contextual meanings with significance beyond what teacher means in English. > Another word used for guru is 'Acharya'- "Swayam acharati iti acharya", meaning, one who conducts self as per his preachings is the acharya. Georg Feuerstein (1998), Tantra: The Path of Ecstasy, Shambhala Publications. In Chopai Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh states about who is the Guru:[98], ਜਵਨ ਕਾਲ ਜੋਗੀ ਸ਼ਿਵ ਕੀਯੋ ॥ ਬੇਦ ਰਾਜ ਬ੍ਰਹਮਾ ਜੂ ਥੀਯੋ ॥ Ved Vyas is very famous in Indian history because he was the one who wrote 18 puranas and the Mahabharata and not to forget the four Vedas. [2], The word Guru is mentioned in the earliest layer of Vedic texts. It also means master of anyone or many subjects/arts. He [teacher] should also thoroughly impress upon the student qualities like humility, which are the means to knowledge. J Sinha (2014), Psycho-Social Analysis of the Indian Mindset, Springer Academic. ONELINE DEFINITION- ~ The word guru is comprised of two words. Numerous here on earth are those who are intent on social class, stage of life and family. [92] In Mahayana Buddhism, a term for Buddha is Bhaisajya guru, which refers to "medicine guru", or "a doctor who cures suffering with the medicine of his teachings". [13] The guru is considered essential and to the Buddhist devotee, the guru is the "enlightened teacher and ritual master", states Stephen Berkwitz. S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), Upadeshasahasri, Vedanta Press, Stella Kramrisch (1958), Traditions of the Indian Craftsman, The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 71, Number 281, Traditional India: Structure and Change (Jul. [84][85][87], In some forms of Buddhism, states Rita Gross, the concept of Guru is of supreme importance. [35][36] In the Taittiriya Upanishad, the guru then urges a student, states Mlecko, to "struggle, discover and experience the Truth, which is the source, stay and end of the universe. P    Self-controlled – They can enter the unblinking, un-moving, non-breathing state of. Patrick Olivelle (2004), Manu's Code of Law, Oxford University Press. H    [100] Traditionally, the concept of Guru is considered central in Sikhism, and its main scripture is prefixed as a Guru, called Guru Granth Sahib, the words therein called Gurbani.[12]. Guru Purnima Sloka – Sanskrit and Meaning. Bijdragen van nieuwe religieuze bewegingen voor de kerk van vandaag (En: A new perspective on the church? The process of acceptance included proffering firewood and sometimes a gift to the guru, signifying that the student wants to live with, work and help the guru in maintaining the gurukul, and as an expression of a desire for education in return over several years. From the pages of “The Dravidian … Shanti Mantra. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal. The oldest references to the concept of guru are found in the earliest Vedic texts of Hinduism. Gurus from many denominations traveled to Western Europe and the US and established followings. S    The guru is the glorious Vajradhara, in this life only the guru is the means [to awakening]. "[81] A true guru guides and counsels a student's spiritual development because, states Yoga-Bija, endless logic and grammar leads to confusion, and not contentment. Guru is a Sanskrit word that means “dispeller of darkness,” from gu, meaning "darkness," and ru, meaning "that which dispels." G    [29], The tradition of reverence for guru continues in several denominations within modern Hinduism, but he or she is typically never considered as a prophet, but one who points the way to spirituality, Oneness of being, and meaning in life. The guru's son is guru putra, while the guru's daughter is the guru putri. January 17, 2021 By: 0 comments. Winand Callewaert and Mukunda Lāṭh (1989), The Hindi Songs of Namdev, Peeters Publishers. IN ENGLISH ~ GURU ! The person who removes the darkness from one's life. But he who is devoid of all concerns is a guru difficult to find. D    [32], The Guru is an ancient and central figure in the traditions of Hinduism. X    This hymn talks about how a seeker’s life transforms within the presence of the Guru. ° Guru constructs you. means light or knowledge. Het woord goeroe komt uit het Sanskriet, wordt geschreven als 'guru' en betekent 'zwaar zijn', 'gewichtig zijn', vooral in figuurlijk opzicht. The Temporal Lord, who created the whole world; who created gods, demons and yakshas; [30] At a social and religious level, the Guru helps continue the religion and Hindu way of life. Gurus have shared the essence of the Absolute and experienced the oneness of being, which endows them with divine powers and the ability to master people and things in this world.". [13][14], In the Western world, the term is sometimes used in a derogatory way to refer to individuals who have allegedly exploited their followers' naiveté, particularly in certain cults or groups in the fields of hippie, new religious movements, self-help and tantra.[15]. just like his Deva, so for his Guru, Author of Breathing Love: Meditation in Action and True Yoga: Practicing with the Yoga Sutras for Happiness and Spiritual Fulfillment, she is a compassionate coach for students who want to apply the deeper teachings of yoga to their goals and challenges on and off the mat. [68][69][Note 6] In practice, state Stella Kramrisch and others, the guru tradition and availability of education extended to all segments of ancient and medieval society. Should I form a relationship with a yoga guru? These slokas can be recited any time or on specific occasions like Teacher's Day or guru purnima. The Hindu tradition uses the term to signify an intimate spiritual teacher who is "heavy" with knowledge and worthy of devotion; and, in the culture of yoga, a guru is regarded as an enlightened mentor. SANSKRIT WORD ~ "गुरु:" ! J    De goeroe als geestelijk raadsman Als we naar het verschijnsel goeroe in India kijken, kunnen we constateren dat er op zijn minst vier vormen van goeroeschap te onderscheiden zijn. Z, Copyright © 2021 Yogapedia Inc. - A Guru (गुरु) is one who conveys the meaning [of the text to] his pupils in whatever manner is appropriate to them, using Sanskrit, Prakrit, or such means as the regional languages. The Guror Aṣṭakam, or “Eight Stanzas on the Guru,” are verses in the Sanskrit language attributed to Adi Shankaracharya (CE 788–820), one of India’s most well-known philosophers and poet-saints. F    The Malayalam term Acharyan or Asan is derived from the Sanskrit word Acharya. [34] In chapter 3 of Taittiriya Upanishad, human knowledge is described as that which connects the teacher and the student through the medium of exposition, just like a child is the connecting link between the father and the mother through the medium of procreation. [93][94], Guru is the spiritual preceptor in Jainism, and typically a role served by Jain ascetics. "[34], The ancient tradition of reverence for the guru in Hindu scriptures is apparent in 6.23 of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, which equates the need of reverence and devotion for guru to be the same as for god,[37][38]. The Temporal Lord who fashioned the entire world; I salute the same Lord. I    The online hypertext Sanskrit dictionary is meant for spoken Sanskrit. [68] The Yajurveda and Atharvaveda texts state that knowledge is for everyone, and offer examples of women and people from all segments of society who are guru and participated in vedic studies. Guru slokas : Guru hold a very important holy meaning in hindu religion.Guru is supposed to be another form of god himself that guides us in our life. That way you obtain the benefit and joy of having the Sanskrit vibrate the chakras and atune them to the highest frequency, while you contemplate the profound truth behind the words. The teacher's sole aim is to help others and a desire to impart the knowledge. Peaceful – They are unflappable because their egos have no personal motive. Enlightenment Blues: My Years with an American Guru. William Owen Cole (1982), The Guru in Sikhism, Darton Longman & Todd. V    Shri Guru Gita is also called Mantra Raja ? uru tadasya yadvaishyah padbhyaam shudhro ajaayat ॥12॥ Meaning: The Brahmana (Spiritual wisdom) became his mouth, the Kshatriyas (Administrative and Military Prowess) became his arms. John Cort (2011), Jains in the World : Religious Values and Ideology in India, Oxford University Press. Gurus who are proficient in the Vedas, textbooks and so on are numerous. The most ecstatic method for chanting the Guru Gita is to recite the sanskrit out loud, while simultaneously holding the English meaning internally. George Michell (1988), The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, University of Chicago Press. A guru (Sanskrit: गुरु) is a person who is regarded as having great knowledge, wisdom and authority in a given area, and uses it to guide others.The word comes from Sanskrit Gu, darkness, and Ru, light (); literally a preceptor who shows others knowledge (light) and destroys ignorance (darkness).. 39, No. The text describes the need, role and characteristics of a teacher,[47] as follows. A guru is a spiritual teacher and leader, particularly in the Hindu and Buddhist traditions. Monkfish Book Publishing. These enchanting guru slokas will surely make you day. C    Alex Wayman (1987), The Guru in Buddhism, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 13:40. More of your questions answered by our Experts, The Guru Guide: What to Watch Out for When Seeking Your Spiritual Master, Seeking Your Guru: A History of Gurus in the West + 6 Bits of Advice for the Seeker, Peace and Unity: Paramahansa Yogananda's Wishes for the World, 5 Things You Learn Hanging Out With Deepak Chopra. Preece, Rob, "The teacher-student relationship" in, Kester, Sacha "Ticket naar Nirvana"/"Ticket to Nirvana", article in the Dutch Newspaper, "Arti kata guru - Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI) Online", "The Dissolution of the Order of the Star: A Statement by J. Krishnamurti", The Mystique of Enlightenment: The Radical Ideas of U.G. [51], Traditionally, the Guru would live a simple married life, and accept shishya (student, Sanskrit: शिष्य) where he lived. Misschien doe een goeroe dat ook inderdaad, maar het heeft niets met de betekenis van het woord te maken, het is volksetymologie. Guru Paduka Stotram glorifies the “sandals of the Guru” and the presence of Guru in one’s life. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. [30] The ultimate liberation, contentment, freedom in the form of moksha and inner perfection is considered achievable in the Hindu belief by two means: with the help of guru, and with evolution through the process of karma including rebirth in some schools of Hindu philosophy. [92] The guru is literally understood as "weighty", states Alex Wayman, and it refers to the Buddhist tendency to increase the weight of canons and scriptures with their spiritual studies. In Gurmuki the phonetic sounds create a vibration that is closest to the actual meanings that the symbols convey. E    Because of the power to dispel darkness, the guru is thus named. [62][73][74] Lise McKean states the guru concept has been prevalent over the range of class and caste backgrounds, and the disciples a guru attracts come from both genders and a range of classes and castes. Y    Sanskrit verses that pay perfect tribute to Gurus In India, a teacher is referred to as Guru (meaning the one who eliminates ignorance). [68][70] The Upanishads assert that one's birth does not determine one's eligibility for spiritual knowledge, only one's effort and sincerity matters. Adi Shankara presents a series of examples wherein he asserts that the best way to guide a student is not to give immediate answers, but posit dialogue-driven questions that enable the student to discover and understand the answer. Jeffery D Long (2009), Jainism: An Introduction, IB Tauris. [95] The guru-tattva is what leads a lay person to the other two tattva. [88], In Vajrayana Buddhism's Tantric teachings, the rituals require the guidance of a guru. >>> The word GURU in Sanskrit means ' One who removes your DARKNESS or IGNORANCE '. 'Piri' means spiritual authority and 'Miri' means temporal authority. These words are in the Gurmuki language, a derivative of Sanskrit developed specifically for spiritual practices-its sacred sounds make up many mantras. [6][54][55] The education stage of a youth with a guru was referred to as Brahmacharya, and in some parts of India this followed the Upanayana or Vidyarambha rites of passage. A person would begin a life of study in the Gurukula (the household of the Guru). [7][8], The Guru (teacher) Shishya (disciple) parampara or guru parampara, occurs where the knowledge (in any field) is passed down through the succeeding generations. Limit seat ! [34] The Katha Upanisad, in verse 1.2.8 declares the guru as indispensable to the acquisition of knowledge. The syllable gu means darkness, the syllable ru, he who dispels them, The Temporal Lord, who created Shiva, the Yogi; who created Brahma, the Master of the Vedas; Many spiritual teachers have fallen from their hallowed title of guru when they succumbed to temptations around sex, money or power. [101] According to the Dutch Indologist Albertina Nugteren, the repeal was only one of several factors and a minor one compared with the two most important causes for the surge of all things 'Eastern': the post-war cross-cultural mobility and the general dissatisfaction with established Western values. [64] Archaeological and epigraphical evidence suggests that ancient and medieval era gurukuls near Hindu temples offered wide range of studies, ranging from Hindu scriptures to Buddhist texts, grammar, philosophy, martial arts, music and painting. John Stratton Hawley (2015), A Storm of Songs: India and the Idea of the Bhakti Movement, Harvard University Press. [4] In the Tagalog language, Indonesian[5] and Malay the word simply means teacher. Barrett, D. V. The New Believers - A survey of sects, cults and alternative religions 2001 UK, Cassell & Co. Kranenborg, Reender (Dutch language) Een nieuw licht op de kerk? III, Motilal Banarsidass. Therefore, teachers and mentors hold a special place in a person's life. As an adjective, it means 'heavy,' or 'weighty,' in the sense of "heavy with knowledge,"[Note 1] heavy with spiritual wisdom,[17] "heavy with spiritual weight,"[18] "heavy with the good qualities of scriptures and realization,"[19] or "heavy with a wealth of knowledge. Stefan Pertz (2013), The Guru in Me - Critical Perspectives on Management, GRIN Verlag. William Pinch (2012), Warrior Ascetics and Indian Empires, Cambridge University Press. Sikhism is derived from the Sanskrit word shishya, or disciple and is all about the relationship between the teacher and a student. T    In this way he takes on the role of Vishnu the sustainer. [65][66][67], The Hindu texts offer a conflicting view of whether access to guru and education was limited to men and to certain varna (castes). The fields of study in traditional guru-sisya parampara were diverse, ranging from Hindu philosophy, martial arts, music, dance to various Vedangas. Paul Williams (1989), Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, Routledge. [30] Guru thus has a historic, reverential and an important role in the Hindu culture. 7/8, pages 43-54. तस्यैते कथिता ह्यर्थाः प्रकाशन्ते महात्मनः ॥ २३ ॥[39] [2] Whatever language it is written in, Judith Simmer-Brown explains that a tantric spiritual text is often codified in an obscure twilight language so that it cannot be understood by anyone without the verbal explanation of a qualified teacher, the guru. Hartmut Scharfe (2007), Education in Ancient India: Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic. He describes this as a folk etymology. Stella Kramrisch (1994), Exploring India's Sacred Art (Editor: Barbara Miller), Motilal Banarsidass. Guru is a Sanskrit word that means “dispeller of darkness,” from gu, meaning "darkness," and ru, meaning "that which dispels." ", "Devotees don't have such an easy time. [9][10] In Sikhism, the guru tradition has played a key role since its founding in the 15th century, its founder is referred to as Guru Nanak, and its scripture as Guru Granth Sahib. [Originally published 1982. गुशब्दस्त्वन्धकारः स्यात्‌ रुशब्दस्तन्निरोधकः। Jeaneane D. Fowler (2012), The Bhagavad Gita, Sussex Academic Press, शिष्यस्य ज्ञानग्रहणं च लिन्गैर्बुद्ध्वा तदग्रहणहेतूनधर्म लौकिकप्रमादनित्यानित्य(वस्तु) विवेकविषयासञ्जातदृढपूर्वश्रुतत्व-लोक-चिन्तावेक्षण-जात्याद्यभिमानादींस्तत्प्रतिपक्षैः श्रुतिस्मृतिविहितैरपनयेदक्रोधादिभिरहिंसादिभिश्च यमैर्ज्ञानाविरुद्धैश्च नियमैः ॥ ४॥ अमानित्वादिगुणं च ज्ञानोपायं सम्यग् ग्राहयेत् ॥ ५॥. 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