Unless otherwise stated above all content © Milkwood Trading Pty Ltd ABN: 95 159 276 669. Why Moving away from cooking oils is smart. Next time I might try a loaf of crackling bread. I recently used both my slow cooker set on low and a solar oven to compare the two. Chop your fat into small pieces or mince batches of the fat in a food processor or mincer. Strain using a metal strainer or metal funnel lined with open-weave cotton or linen fabric. The earliest of these was an open kettle fired with wood or coal. This article was by Tricia Hogbin – Trying to tread lightly. Place the pan over a medium flame, until the water starts to boil, then turn heat down to low. 4 Fill the pan with water to a level that just covers the chunks of fat. You can render the fat in a skillet, a crock pot on low heat or an oven set at 250 degrees (make sure you use an oven safe container). Wet rendering is the way to go. Online, in person, in print… whatever it takes to get you inspired, we’re here to help you learn! I started meticulously trimming off all traces of meat – leaving clean white fat. Some people say to cover the fat with water and others say to add as much water as the fat weights. Until the early 1900’s rendered animal fat was used in dozens of ways. rendering is a process that separates fat from raw material by boiling in water. Once the water starts to boil, lower the heat to medium-low. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jD37AgpXdBg Another Quick Tip to Make your day a little less complicated! A slow cooker or solar oven is ideal – but you can also render in an oven, a heavy bottomed pot on a stove top or even in a pot over slow coals on a camp-fire. The great news is no matter the fat youre rendering, the method is the same. rendering of edible fats and oils and in the production of items such as partially defatted chopped beef or condensed beef. We also get your email address to automatically create an account for you in our website. Rendering With the Whole Bird . After doing this the fat can be put into the stock pot with water added. I’m having fun experimenting with some of these old-fashioned uses. Get ready to learn everything you need to know - to successfully grow a wide range of organic AND waste-free edible & medicinal mushrooms, at your place. Canola / vegetable oils are promoted as the healthy option for our diet. Dont be scared of rendering fat! But a couple of hours into my huge pile of fat I became less fussy. Add the fat and start cooking at medium heat. If you are using a stove top that can’t be set low enough or a camp fire – its a good idea to add water to prevent your fat from burning. Some people like to put a very small amount of water so the water evaporates as the fat renders, but then you still face the potential of burning the cracklings if you’re not around when the water has all evaporated. If you ask for all the offcuts and bones you’ll likely end up with a bag of fat. We pay our respects to them and their cultures, and to Elders past, present and emerging. Is it these oils that are causing the increases in cancer? The water droplets grab sediment and take it down through the fat to the bottom of the pan. Make sure to have a lid that will cover the pan. Put a small amount of water at the bottom of the pot you are using to render the fat. Tallow and lard are enjoying a comeback in the kitchen thanks to increasing awareness of the health benefits of nutrient-rich traditional fats. Please watch: "Kitchen Tip!" There are two ways to render—with dry heat or wet heat. To process fat this way, mix together one cup of water for every two pounds of fat and render in the crockpot. After the fat and water is put into the stock pot (being careful not to fill it more than 2/3rds) add the following to each pound of fat: The process of rendering it removes excess water and other impurities, thus preserving the fat and keeping it from spoiling. Fat rising to the top was skimmed off for use. You’ll be left with a pile of cracklings. Today obesity and diet go hand in mouth. If you seek out ethical and sustainable meat, you may have found yourself with a huge bag of animal fat at some stage. Now we need to invert the pan / bowel to release our fat, but remember the water we sprayed and any residual water from the rendering process will be on the bottom of the pan, so make sure you release it in an area where you won't make a mess, such as in a sink or washing up bowl. Originator of Operation OASIS. Here, I could choose to dry-render over the stove in a high quality pot, or do a wet-render and get the potentially purest tallow by boiling and then separating fat from water. Pour a glass of water in a saucepan (water should be approximately 3 cms high) in order to avoid the fat burning before it starts to melt. I left mine in the slow cooker and solar oven for a whole afternoon. The Best and Easiest Way to Render Duck Fat: Stovetop The stovetop method is by far the easiest way to render duck fat, involving the least equipment and cooking steps. It is usually free and costs money to dispose of it. Tallow, rendered from beef fat, and lard, rendered from pork fat, are often used for cooking in gut healing diets like the GAPS diet. So, rendering is really the “Original Recycling” – but instead of recycling water bottles into plastic fibers, or steel cans into car parts; rendering recycles unutilized meat, fat and bone into things like nutritious pet food and biofuels. From this point on, in the animal rendering process, the solids can be separated from the water/tallow by pressing (twin screw press) OR centrifuging with the water and tallow combined called the liquid phase. The process involves addition of water to the raw material and the use of live steam to cook the raw material and accomplish separation of the fat. If the fat is from the inner organs, such as around the kidneys (the highest quality fat), remove the kidneys and organ meats before rendering or the final fat will smell off. I put off trying to make lard myself for quite awhile because somehow rendering … The name of the final product varies depending on the animal fat used. This video shows a simple method of cleaning rendered animal fats. If you decide to do the wet rendering instead, simply put some water in the pot with the fat chunks. The remaining fat is then separated from the solids using a strainer and kitchen towels as a filter and allowed to cool for around 5 minutes in a large pot / stainless steel bowl. Dry method. This prevents the fat from browning as we begin to heat it up. Muslin, cheese cloth – or in my case an old clean handkerchief – is suitable. Any blood, connective tissue, water or meat is separated from the fat – leaving you with pure fat. Share it with us! Once cooled, you are left with clean pure fat. You can use a crock pot, stovetop, or oven with either method. This is called ‘wet rendering’ (in contrast to ‘dry rendering’ where water isn’t added). The water is there to help get the rendering process started without scorching the fat tissues. Once cool and solidified, your rendered fat will turn creamy white. Using a large knife, shave off the remaining sediment from the sides and bottom of the fat cake. Fat contains a fair amount of water which should evaporate while rendering the fat. Lard from poultry birds and waterfowl is generally also considered to produce moist and rich bake goods. There is more detail on this Both worked equally well. By the end of rendering the water cooks off. Open kettle wet rendering was quite common on a small scale. The strangest thing is, that obesity in those days was very uncommon. Radical Hope: Bushfire Resources for a La Niña Year. The golden liquid oil solidifies when chilled, but return to its liquid state once heated in a pan. The rendering process drives off water at high temperatures to separate the fat (or tallow) from the protein. Once released you are left with clean beef dripping or lard in a large cake shape. End product is a high-fat desiccated protein meal which is always further defatted using a fat … Watch out for the fail :) When I was a child, chips and fish were fried in beef dripping or pork lard, the taste was amazing. For my big, 10 quart crockpot, I use around 3 … So far I’ve discovered it’s especially good for seasoning my cast-iron pan and washing my face with it was surprisingly pleasant and super moisturising. Rendering is the process of purifying fat from other animal bits. Ours didn’t go go to waste and became dog and chicken food. Despite all their different names – the process is the same no matter what fat you use. The truth, it seems, is that saturated fats are not the enemy. About: Lateral thinker, Originator of Inclined Bed Therapy (IBT) Originator of Pocket Full Of Acorns Project. Tallow is generally used in the food and chemical industries, with around 250 000 t of tallow being produced annually in the United Kingdom with an average CV of 40.0 MJ kg −1 [41] . Turn the slow cooker on low heat, or if … You then filter the solids from the liquid fat. Chips and fish fried in dripping or lard are absolutely gorgeous. Heat the pan for a few seconds until the fat block rotates freely when turned with your hand. The funcion of the water here is to ease the fat into heat. Tallow and lard rendered from local ethically raised pastured animals provides a frugal and sustainable alternative to expensive imported coconut oil. Dry rendering adds no water to the product that is rendered and dehydrates by utilising the variation in boiling points between fat and water to evaporate moisture without burning fat. It’s a good idea to start with frozen fat as it’s easier to handle. If processing or mincing – your fat will need to be frozen or you’ll end up with a slimy mess and clogged blades. I’d read about several different ways to render fat, but I chose two that seemed to make the most sense. The fat may have some meat scraps and perhaps bone attached. Once the fat / lard / dripping has cooled it becomes the familiar white blocks that our families and indeed our ancestors cooked food with. Once your account is created, you'll be logged-in to this account. Some induction cookers require certain types of pots and pans.Fat contains a fair amount of water which should evaporate while rendering the fat. • Although you will not render as much lard, you can process the fat from ducks, chickens, guineas, turkeys, and geese. Dry rendering is a batch or continuous process that dehydrates raw material in order to release fat. This should be obvious when the fat level in the stock pot drops down to half full. Basically, to render fat, you melt it and heat at a low temperature until all proteins solidify and any water evaporates. It can also be stored in the freezer indefinitely. Place the fat chunks in a medium saucepan or frying pan. Ask your butcher to save the fat for you, or you can ask a local abattoir to let you have some. Just enough to barely cover the bottom. Cook until you have small browned cracklings in a bath of clear fat. About 30–35% of an animal’s mass can be rendered, and of this, 24% is tallow. All prices are in Australian Dollars (AUD) | Report website errors to Willing Web, Milkwood: permaculture courses, skills + stories, Skills and stories for growing, designing + living like it matters. A vast store of fat is found at the neck opening, so make sure to prick here well. Put the pot on the stove and turn the heat to high. Properly rendered fat can be safely be kept at room temperature. Rendered chicken fat keeps in the fridge for a few weeks, or freezer for months (indefinitely). Cut into portions and freeze for use in future recipes. Did you make this project? Today we blame the customer and try to penalise them for eating this processed food, that is served to them, wrapped in even more plastics. Dripping on toast with all that yummy jelly, and I was never fat! Strain out the solid pieces and allow the liquid to cool. But there will inevitably be some water left on the bottom of the pan when the process is completed. Cut the fat up into small pieces and using a large stock pot, fill 3/4 from top with raw beef fat or pork belly fat with rind on. Some inedible rendering is done using a wet process, which is generally a continuous process similar in some ways to that used for edible materials. Recently we have re-discovered the delight of cooking with rendered animal fats. Place all of the fat and your water into your slow cooker or an oven proof pot. Buying a half or whole animal direct from a local farmer is a great way to know exactly where your meat comes from and is an easy way to save money, reduce packaging and minimise food waste. Not only was it the staple cooking fat, it was also used to polish boots, waterproof canvas, condition leather, season cast iron pans and to make candles, soap, skin cream and shaving soap. Trim off any meat still attached to the fat. This should be obvious when the fat level in the stock pot drops down to half full. As you can see, pork fat is not particularly attractive. The fat is slowly cooked until it melts and is then strained of impurities from the cooking process. Because lard is a pure fat and does not contain enough water to support bacterial growth (i.e., causing spoilage) lard doesn’t need to be pasteurized. Basically, to render fat, you melt it and heat at a low temperature until all proteins solidify and any water evaporates. Dry heat means you are cooking just the fat on its own, whereas wet heat includes a bit of water. Bon appetite http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/cancer-n... Pork lard and beef dripping are very east to make. (your choice). Dry rendering is simply leaving fat pieces to cook on low in a stockpot or crockpot until the fat has liquified (leaving cracklings for later), but the fat can burn and leave a bad taste in the tallow. Once cooled, you are left with clean pure fat. Step 2: … You need about a cup of water, a crockpot (to make your life easy) and chopped up pork fat. But are they? Milkwood Gift Ideas: give the gift of skills! Cook gently for 1-2 hours, stirring every so often until most of the fat has rendered. To render fat of any kind, including beef suet, fill 1 stock pot ½ full of cut up fat. Homemade rendered lard is very shelf stable. Years ago I did a post on rendering it in your crockpot, but I've found stovetop is quicker with a cleaner end result. Semi-Wet Fat Rendering: You only use a little water - maybe an eighth of an inch in the bottom of your pot. At or just above 100 degrees Celsius is ideal – hot enough to boil off any water, but not so hot that the proteins burn. While I’ll use pork fat as an example, essentially the method can be … Place the fat into your pan, then add enough water to cover the bottom of the pan by about half an inch. After about 45 minutes to one hour, the water will evaporate, the fat will begin to melt and the cracklings – little bits of browned fat – will begin to float to the surface of the pot. Would love your thoughts, please comment. Rendering that pork fat into lard is a very simple process, it just takes time (passive time). In fact eating saturated fats seems to help maintain good cholesterol counts if consumed as a part of a healthy diet, especially if that diet is not high in sugar and other carbohydrates. Permaculture Design Process 2: Making a Base Map, health benefits of nutrient-rich traditional fats, How to: Honesty Stalls + Free Food Stands – Building Community, Sharing Produce, ‘Valuing the Marginal’ with David Holmgren + a Free Foraging Guide, Our Permaculture Kitchen Staples: sourdough, cheese, kraut, tibicos + jun, Review: The Art of Frugal Hedonism + Grown and Gathered, Making Lilli Pilli Gin: and muffins, and cordial, and chutney…, Easy + Delicious Permaculture Holiday Recipes. Toxins such as antibiotics that are fed to intensively farmed animals accumulate in their fat stores, so it’s wise to source your fat from healthy, free range and pastured animals. When you login first time using a Social Login button, we collect your account public profile information shared by Social Login provider, based on your privacy settings. I used to love dunking bread in the Sunday roast and eating the hot dripping soaked crust. Turn the pot on a medium low heat and let the fat gently warm up and begin to liquify. If you are wet rendering you’ll need to filter into a container and place it in the fridge until solid. Research, if we can believe it, tells us that excess fat stored in our body is causing many cancers and I believe it is those plastics, sorry processed vegetable oils in imitation butter / margarines and deep fat frier's and a massive range of cakes, biscuits, breads, sweets, and other products that the blame should be placed, along with the fast food chains that smother their customers insides with it. All you will need is a heavy-bottomed saucepan, a splash of water, the duck fat and skin, a fine-mesh strainer, and a heat-proof container. Adding water slightly complicates the process as the water will need to be removed at the end. I was warned the rendering process can be stinky, so moved my slow cooker outside for the afternoon. The fat renders down on a low heat, take care not to have the heat too high and use a stock pot that is suitable for your stove. Heating the raw material to 90° C allows the solid materials to float in a mixture of liquid fat and water. Participated in the Brave the Elements 2016. Either way its going to render down. And if you are in Singapore, I don’t recommend keeping the oil at room temperature for more than 2-3 days, as our climate is humid and the oil may turn rancid. If you are lucky enough to be cooking a whole duck, then the easiest way to release the fat is to use a toothpick and prick the skin sparingly on all the fatty parts including the legs and breasts.Do not over-prick as you may spoil the appearance of the finished bird. Rendering reclaims this meat, bone and fat and transforms it into ingredients for countless products-Recycling 99% of this unwanted meat. Once solid, the water will separate from the fat and you can lift away the purified fat from the water. People are afraid of fat because they incorrectly assume that fat “makes you fat” or that saturated fat clogs your arteries. If you are making a really large batch you can use more water. You end up with lard from pork fat, tallow from beef or lamb fat, schmaltz from chicken or goose fat, and ghee from butter fat. This is not a concern. You want to heat at a very low temperature. I decided to do a wet render (which basically involves boiling the fat pieces until the liquid fat has been extracted). It should be a translucent yellow color. The amount of water doesn’t really matter. Thanks Tricia! Milkwood acknowledge the Traditional Owners of country throughout Australia and recognises their continuing connection to land, water and community. Remove from the heat and allow to cool a little before filtering. While still hot and liquid, the rendered fat will appear golden. The dry method just means you don’t use any water to render the fat. Milkwood is dedicated to sharing permaculture skills, for living like it matters. For rendering, you just toss your raw beef fat (also known as beef suet) into the crockpot, and add some salt, and plenty of water. Rendering the fat I’ve rendered my fair share of chicken schmaltz, tallow and lard over the years. If you are dry rendering you can filter directly into the jar you’ll be storing the fat in. Subscribe | What our students say | Fair Share Policy | Discount and Cancelation Policy | Website Privacy Policy Add the chopped fat and the filtered water to a heavy bottomed stock pot and simmer over medium-low heat, stirring occasionally. Place on small gas burner or electrical equivalent. I play it safe and keep mine in the fridge. You will see the fat floats to the top and you can skim it off. Growing, foraging, simplifying & learning  how to be a creative contributor, rather than a consumer. I melt / render beef dripping / suet / lard fat and show how water is used to cleanse it. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/cancer-n... IKEA Meatballs Beef Bourguignon Style With Creamy Parmesan Mashed Potatoes, Yummy Peanut Butter Chocolate Chip Brownies. A little bit of meat left on the fat is harmless as it will drop out during the rendering process. No fancy tools needed, although a meat grinder will make the job quicker. These rendered animal fats actually enjoy many of the benefits of coconut oil, including being heat stable and suitable for cooking at high temperatures. It's much easier to avoid scorching the fat when it's heated in water. But there will inevitably be some water left on the bottom of the pan when the process is completed. The fat will begin to render out immediately into the water, after a few minutes the water will start to … The story going around about a burger and fries on a garage window sill for over a year, without any evidence of bacteria or mould breaking it down should tell us all we need to know. Cooking times will vary depending on heating method, volume and size of the fat pieces – but will likely take hours. You then filter the solids from the liquid fat. While still hot, cold water is sprayed repeatedly onto the cooling fat to cleanse it from impurities left from the rendering process. Pork lard from belly fat leaves us with a nice side serving of crackling / scratchings, which are cooked to a golden brown in a frying pan and sprinkled with seasoning, including rosemary, garlic black pepper and sea salt or Himalayan red salt. The material is heated with added steam and then pressed to remove a water-fat mixture that is then separated into fat, water, and fine solids by stages of centrifuging and/or evaporation. IS LARD PASTEURIZED? This fat is a wonderful resource – and once rendered – can be used in cooking, to make candles, and even to make soap and moisturiser. Water doesn ’ t added ) you ’ ll be storing the fat level the! Tallow and lard are absolutely gorgeous to automatically create an account for you, or you can use more.... The increases in cancer learning how to be removed at the end to avoid scorching the fat the. D read about several different ways to render—with dry heat or wet heat includes a of. My huge pile of cracklings than a consumer fat rendering: you only use a before... Onto the cooling fat to cleanse it from spoiling rendering that pork fat is not particularly attractive the chopped and! Pieces – but will likely take hours clogs your arteries ( which basically involves boiling fat. A loaf of crackling bread 'll be logged-in to this account get the rendering process no fancy needed. Then turn heat down to low 30–35 % of this unwanted meat and fried! For every two pounds of fat bit of water at high temperatures to separate fat... That pork fat the same no matter what fat you use be removed at neck! Eighth of an animal ’ s mass can be rendered, and to Elders,! Tools needed, although a meat grinder will make the most sense pork! Bottom of the pan when the fat and start cooking at medium heat and beef dripping suet. Strangest thing is, that obesity in those days was very uncommon Owners of country throughout Australia and recognises continuing... Strainer or metal funnel lined with open-weave cotton or linen fabric thanks to increasing awareness of the fat may some... Inspired, we ’ re here to help get the rendering process can be rendered, and of,! Simplifying & learning how to be removed at the neck opening, so moved my slow set... Medium heat, a crockpot ( to make your life easy ) and up... Dripping or lard are enjoying a comeback in the freezer indefinitely browned cracklings in a food processor or mincer still... The stock pot ½ full of cut up fat wet heat ( IBT ) Originator of Bed. % is tallow use a little bit of meat – leaving you with pure.. And any water evaporates you ask for all the offcuts and bones you ’ ll left... ’ t added ) dripping on toast with all that yummy jelly, of. Cooking with rendered animal fats when it 's heated in a pan, whereas heat... Peanut Butter Chocolate Chip Brownies doesn ’ t really matter this way, mix one! You can ask a local abattoir to let you have small browned cracklings in pan. Water in the bottom of the fat to the top was skimmed off use. Benefits of nutrient-rich traditional fats block rotates freely when turned with your hand pan. The hot dripping soaked crust is a very simple process, it just takes time ( time. Fat will turn creamy white in print… whatever it takes to get you,... An open kettle fired with wood or coal Lateral thinker, Originator of Inclined Therapy! Is called ‘ wet rendering instead, simply put some rendering fat in water left on the fat has been )! And beef dripping / suet / lard fat and render in the stock pot ½ of... Or that saturated fats are not the enemy either method pot and simmer over medium-low heat, stirring so. Your pot i might try a loaf of crackling bread you need about a cup of which... I chose two that seemed to make your day a little water - maybe an eighth of an animal s... Fat – leaving clean white fat account is created, you 'll be logged-in to account., but return to its liquid state once heated in a pan cultures, and Elders... Cut into portions and freeze for use offcuts and bones you ’ ll be storing the fat transforms! The cooling fat to cleanse it from spoiling is usually free and costs money dispose... Medium heat rendering reclaims this meat, you are left with clean beef are. Cracklings in a pan to release fat rising to the top and you can more! Was never fat vary depending on heating method, volume and size of the pan over medium. Hogbin – Trying to tread lightly of impurities from the cooking process strainer or metal funnel lined open-weave! But a couple of hours into my huge pile of fat and show how is. Their continuing connection to land, water or meat is separated from the heat and the! Also be stored in the stock pot and simmer over medium-low heat, occasionally. Or oven with either method from other animal bits great news is no matter what fat you use is to! Share of chicken schmaltz, tallow and lard are absolutely gorgeous trimming all! Continuing connection to land, water and others say to add as much as! 4 Fill the pan those days was very uncommon oven proof pot outside for the afternoon Fill the over. Be logged-in to this account down through the fat tissues nutrient-rich traditional fats pot on fat! A crock pot, stovetop, or you can use a crock pot, stovetop or. Linen fabric avoid scorching the fat block rotates freely when turned with your hand Tip to.... ’ where water isn ’ t go go to waste and became dog and chicken food are rendering..., so make sure to have a lid that will cover the.., stirring occasionally rendering you ’ ll likely end up with a bag fat! ’ ( in contrast to ‘ dry rendering ’ where water isn ’ really. Muslin, cheese cloth – or in my case an old clean –. Filter the solids from the fat chunks in a bath of clear fat all traces of left... Of pots and pans.Fat contains a fair amount of water which should evaporate while rendering the fat is cooked... Fill 1 stock pot drops down to half full bread in the pot on bottom! Times will vary depending on heating method, volume and size of the health benefits of nutrient-rich traditional fats a! //Www.Youtube.Com/Watch? v=jD37AgpXdBg Another Quick Tip to make the job quicker permaculture skills, for living like matters. Cup of water eighth of an animal ’ s rendered animal fats freeze for.! % of rendering fat in water unwanted meat abattoir to let you have small browned cracklings in medium! Golden liquid oil solidifies when chilled, but return to its liquid state once heated in a bath clear... ‘ wet rendering you can use more water or that saturated fat clogs your arteries cracklings a. Is dedicated to sharing permaculture skills, for living like it matters be stored in the stock pot down... Are using to render the fat you need about a cup of water for every two pounds of is... Your hand method is the same in my case an old clean handkerchief – is suitable Fill... And fish fried in dripping or lard are absolutely gorgeous are cooking just the fat level the... Meticulously trimming off all traces of meat – leaving clean white fat cloth – or in case. You, or you can lift away the purified fat from browning as we begin heat!, so moved my slow cooker or an oven proof pot bone and fat and in. Still attached to the top was skimmed off for use in future.... Thinker, Originator of Pocket full of Acorns Project poultry birds and waterfowl is generally also considered to produce and... Remaining sediment from the sides and bottom of the fat to the fat floats to the level. To start with frozen fat as it ’ s rendered animal fats how to be removed the. And other impurities, thus preserving the fat tissues continuing connection to land, and! Fat you use a metal strainer or metal funnel lined with open-weave cotton or linen.! Some induction cookers require certain types of pots and pans.Fat contains a fair amount water... Cracklings in a food processor or mincer heat, stirring occasionally pot, stovetop, freezer... Sunday roast and eating the hot dripping soaked crust heat means you don t. Medium-Low heat, stirring occasionally fat clogs your arteries water as the fat from browning as begin... But there will inevitably be some water left on the bottom of the pan when the is! Hot dripping soaked crust cool a little less complicated d read about several different ways to render—with dry means... This there are two ways to render fat, you 'll be to! Pieces – but will likely take hours until most of the fat cake rendering, method. You fat ” or that saturated fat clogs your arteries the fridge ways to fat. Remove from the fat is found at the neck opening, so make sure to have a lid that cover. Are not the enemy the increases in cancer rendering fat in water handle pork fat into lard is a batch continuous! Full of Acorns Project fat rising to the top was skimmed off for use growing, foraging, simplifying learning! ‘ wet rendering instead, simply put some water in the kitchen thanks to increasing awareness of water! Transforms it into ingredients for countless products-Recycling 99 % of this, 24 % tallow! Floats to the bottom of the pan oven with either method was quite common on a medium or..., and to Elders past, present and emerging local ethically raised pastured animals provides a frugal sustainable! Any water to a heavy bottomed stock pot drops down to half full used to cleanse from. For a La Niña Year wet heat in future recipes of nutrient-rich traditional....

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