Diagonal scarf [Diagonal butt] (Fig. Most commonly, a single keelson was installed that was no larger than the keel. The difference between the draft of a vessel’s stern and its bow. Channel wale. Larboard Side. [a] deck framing at the mainmast of a large warship: (1) frames; (2) hanging knee; (3) lodging knee; (4) packing piece; (5) deck beam; (6) carlings; (7) ledges; (8) beam arm; (9) deck beam scarf; (10) binding strake; (11) mast carling; (12) mast partner; and (13) chock; [b] typical deck framing and supporting features (after Stevens 1949: 29): (1) deck beam; (2) ledge; (3) carling; (4) deck planking; (5) hanging knee; (6) lodging knee; (7) shelf clamp; and (8) ceiling [quickwork]; [c] a common form of hatch construction; (1) deck planking; (2) head ledge; (3) hatch coaming; (4) carling; (5) hatch beam; (6) deck beam; (7) lodging knee [only one set shown]; and (8) half beam; [d] a typical mast partner for small merchant ship: the partners are (1) carlings and (2) chocks; (3) mast hole; (4) deck beam; and (5) half beam; [e] standing and plate knees: (1) standing knee; (2) frame; (3) outer planking; (4) plate knee; (5) deck beam; (6) shelf clamp; and (7) chock; [f] a method of terminating deck planks at the incurving sides of ships: (1) waterway; (2) nibbing strake [margin plank]; (3) nibbed end; and (4) deck plank. Common ceiling (Fig. The glossary is primarily relevant to the first two sections of this handbook and is not meant to be representative of the entire field of maritime archaeology. In the later years of large sailing ships, this was the third bower and was usually carried in the starboard bow next to the best bower. A large metal staple used to attach the false keel to the keel. Fish. Wing transom (Figs. G-11b). Also, a term applied to specially shaped battens fitted to the cant frames or other areas of extreme curvature during construction; used to check and adjust frame bevels. The only rigging used as standing rigging and I believe I also rigged the Braces as well. Sheer line. Ever since I was an avid model-maker as a kid, and now a game modeler as an adult, I have been fascinated by sailing ship models and ships in bottles. 17, 19, and 29; G-7a, G-7b, G-7c, and G-7e). A knee set angularly on the inside of the hull; a knee that is neither vertical or horizontal. ... with other members of the crew. Loose boards placed over the bilges to protect cargo from bilgewater damage. A deck running continuously from bow to stern, without breaks or raised elements. G-3 and G-4a). An athwartship beam in a Viking vessel. In later English documents, bow hooks were called gripes; stern hooks were called heels. The lower horizontal timber framing a gunport, large square light, or gallery door. Alarm device that signals the operator of low engine oil pressure, high engine coolant temperature and high hydraulic oil and transmission oil temperature. G-12f). The ends of planks that fit into the stem and sternpost rabbets; hooding ends were sometimes reduced in thickness to permit a better join with the posts. A raised border at the edge of a hatch whose function was to prevent water from entering the space below. Charley Nobel (Fig. G-5, no. G-5, no. G-3). A strong vertical piece to which the tiller was fitted; on large, post-medieval vessels it was the main vertical timber of the rudder, and it was also known as the mainpiece. G-14a). Pump well [Sump] (Fig. Fully Rigged Ship Boatswain : Pronounced "bosun," refers to the mate, warrant officer, or petty officer in charge of boats, rigging, and ground tackle aboard ship. Clench [Clinch] (Fig. A central hull plank that was substantially thicker than the rest of the bottom planking and whose breadth was at least twice as great as its thickness; a thick bottom plank used in lieu of a keel. The after part of a vessel’s side. A bolt with a hook-shaped head used for securing detachable lines, tackle, and other gear. Centerboards increased lateral resistance and therefore reduced leeway when tacking or sailing off the wind. A tool used for boring holes. Manger. G-3). Sheathing nail (Figs. included the ramming timber, the forward bow timbers configured to reinforce the ramming timber, and a metal sheath; in actual practice, the metal sheath is usually called the ram. They reinforced the many openings (hatches, mast steps, pumps, etc.) Careen. G-9). A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. Cistern. Figure G-4. See Clinker-built. Half beam (Figs. Boxing [Boxing joint] (Fig. Gear Used in Rigging. Copper fastened. Frames: (a) an example of double framing—a square frame of an early-nineteenth-century merchant ship; (b) two additional commonly used frame timber joints; (c) room and space of a popular framing plan; (d) some vessels were framed with a pair of overlapping floor timbers having arms of unequal length, resulting in an even number of timbers in each frame; (e) lower side view of the framing plan of a large warship, where a pair of single frames (called filling frames) were set between double frames; futtocks, marked F, are shown by number; in such an arrangement, the room and space included the filling frames; and (f) bevels and chamfers. 8). A short beam set between and parallel to the deck beams to provide intermediate support of the deck; the ends of ledges were supported by carlings, clamps, or lodging knees. Horning pole [Horning board, Horning line]. A horizontal piece of wood or metal fixed along the bottom of a rudder to protect the lower ends of the vertical rudder pieces and align the bottom of the rudder with the bottom of the false keel. Steering oar. Pitch [Tar]. The part of the knee of the head containing the gammoning hole. It was used to increase longitudinal strength and to prevent shifting of wales and other stress-bearing planks. G-7f). The portion of a plank that is overlapped by another on a clinker-built vessel. Scantlings. (p. 1123) The strongest steel wire rope is employed, of a type which does not bend easily. Cordage. Figure G-15. Wheel [Steering wheel] (Fig. Lines on a hull drawing representing the horizontal sections of the hull. See Mortise-and-tenon joint. The thread supplied is far too light. G-9o and G-9p). (p. 1148) Ship's Articles - A written agreement between the master of a ship and the crew concerning the terms of their employment. How to use rigging in a sentence. When rigging our ships we all have a need to secure knots to stop them loosening. Tabernacle. Rails, balustrades, or planking running along the quarterdeck. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). Strake [Streake]. Another term for the stock of a quarter rudder. Whether you’re new to the freight industry or want to brush up on freight terms… Hook bolt (Fig. meginhufrs evolved from the triangular-sectioned sheer strakes of earlier, simpler Norse hulls. For a ship database search select Ships from the Age of Sail. RIGGING – The ropes are wires that control the sails and support the masts are called “rigging.” RUDDER – When you turn the wheel on a vessel, it moves the “rudder” and allows you to steer. K is the side of the keel, ⊗ the centerline, and S probably indicates the sheer line. Rigging is a significant part of the process of building a model ship. G-11a). Bower. Turn of the bilge. The inboard end of a cathead. G-3 and G-5). Hercules SLR will continue our ‘Rigging Glossary’ with rigging terms in the alphabet D-Z—check our ‘Blog’ page for future rigging glossaries, and to read our ‘Crane Glossary’. —Eds.]. G-5). Floor timber (Fig. In earlier times, called “larboard.” Rig: The distinctive arrangement of masts, rigging, and sails that indicates a type of vessel, such as a bark or schooner. G-13d). Standing Rigging: The ropes and chains used to support the masts, yards and bowsprit, called the shrouds and stays. Bilge ledge. Treenail [Trunnel, Trennal] (Figs. (p. 1124) It should not be confused with a false keel, whose primary purpose was to protect the keel’s lower surface. To coat; to cover a hull bottom with a protective layer of pitch, resin, sulphur, etc. G-5). 2. Parcel. G-8). The underwater portion of a fully loaded hull; also used as a general designation for a seagoing vessel. (p. 1149) The left hand side of a vessel. Patch tenon (Fig. G-8). G-5, no. Thole [Tholepin]. See also Whole molding. Bulkhead. Keel staple [Keel clamp] (Figs. Hercules SLR provides custom rigging and inspects, repairs and certifies rigging hardware. Roving iron (Fig. Stern construction: (a) stern framing of an eighteenth-century brig; (b) partial side view of the same stern near the post; (c) partial top view of the same stern; (d) lower stern framing of a galleon; (e) alternate stern details; and (f) one form of skeg installation on a small sloop. Capstan [Capstern]. Apertures cut in the bottom surfaces of frames over, or on either side of, the keel to allow water to drain into the pump well. The term applies primarily to ancient ships and inshore craft, where they reinforced the areas around beams, mast steps, bilge sumps, etc., or extended upward as frames for bulkheads and weather screens. Burden [Burthen]. (p. 1118) G-12a). G-18). See also Rising wood. Cable locker [Cable tier]. In many instances, the joint was locked by driving tapered hardwood pegs into holes drilled near each strake or timber edge. G-8). G-13a). Also refers to any gear not fastened down or put away properly. Tuck (Fig. from the Ma’agan Michael vessel, Israel: A preliminary report. Fair. ALTHOUGH the masts, yards, sails, blocks, and ropes, do altogether compose what may be called the RIGGING OF A SHIP, or VESSEL; yet the mode of applying the ropes to the several other parts, and combining the whole, so as to produce the means of navigating the vessel, is likewise termed, RIGGING A VESSEL; and of rigging, in this latter sense, we are now about to treat. Sometimes called a sister keel. Deck framing and details. Filling piece [Filler] (Fig. Caprail [Main rail, Cap] (Fig. Nibbing strake [Margin plank] (Fig. In ancient vessels, a headed tenon inserted from the exterior or interior surface of a plank. See Room and space. Variously, a short, raised foredeck, the forward part of the upper deck between the foremast and the stem, or the quarters below the foredeck. The floor rising line; specifically, a ribband or batten fastened to the outside of the frames at the heads of the floor timbers; used for fairing and to determine the shapes and lengths of intermediate frames. The parts of an Admiralty anchor. The ordinary ceiling used to prevent cargo and ballast from falling between the frames; common ceiling was usually made from relatively thin planking and seldom contributed longitudinal strength to the hull structure. Secondary keelsons did not necessarily run the full length of the hull, terminating at the ends of the hold, the last square frames, or some other appropriate location. An angular block or wedge used to fill out areas between timbers or to separate them; chocks were used to fill out deadwoods and head knees, separate frames and futtocks, etc. The vessel was careened or drydocked to perform this task. Rigging , Expressions. The inward curvature of a vessel’s upper sides as they rose from the point of maximum breadth to the bulwarks. Stanchion (Fig. Main frame. The practice of adding timber to the sides of ships to increase their breadth and thereby improve stability. Head. A thin piece of wood used to fill a separation between two timbers or a frame and a plank. The highest and aftermost deck of a ship. The mechanism, consisting of chains, ropes, blocks, etc., used to transfer movement of the wheel to the tiller. Back rabbet line (Fig. G-4d). The broadest frame in the hull; the frame representing the midship shape on the body plan. One of the athwartship members, fixed to the sternpost, that shaped and strengthened the stern. Graving piece (Fig. Flare. G-5, no. A vertical pin at the forward edge of a stern-hung rudder that fit into a gudgeon on the sternpost to form a hinge. A transom that supported the after ends of deck planks. In common terms, it is called for part of the ship/boat in between the bow and the stern. See also Timber head. The mast is supported by stays and shrouds that are known as the standing rigging because they are A round or multi-sided piece of hardwood, driven through planks and timbers to connect them. It can be tedious and time-consuming however putting the effort in adds to the beauty of your finished model. An internal frame seated atop the ceiling, to which it was fastened; riders could be single pieces, but more often they were complete frames composed of floor timbers, futtocks, and top timbers. (p. 1110) G-18). Another name for the waterlines on hull plans; they described the horizontal sections of the hull. Oakum [Oakham]. Cracks occurring during curing are also referred to as checks. In pure shell-built hulls, outer planking was self-supporting and formed the primary structure; the framework fastened to it formed the secondary, or stiffening, structure. A curved partial beam whose inboard end was scarfed or tenoned into the side of a deck beam and Because of the uneven Siding of forward frame faces, irregular spacing, and varying methods of fabrication, room and space is often a meaningless term in ancient hull documentation. They could span part of the bottom, turn of the bilge, or side. Figure G-8. A timber, or assembly of timbers, that could be rotated about an axis to control the direction of a vessel underway. Ceiling planks next to the keelson which could be removed to clean the limbers; on some ancient vessels, limber boards were laid transversely above the centerline of the keel. See also Breadth. These terms come mainly from the great age of sailing ships, the 16th to 18th centuries, and almost all hail from the two great seafaring peoples of the day, those being the brave English and the most hated Dutch. A small balcony on the side of a ship near its stern. Side timbers. A strake of planking that is discontinued near the bow or stern because of decreasing hull surface area. A small brace or knee used to support the gratings in the head of a ship. Overhang. Jib-boom. G-3 and G-13). There is a variety of sail plans that propel sailing ships, employing square-rigged or fore-and-aft sails. Best bower. G-5). G-9). G-4c). A cylindrical hole in the bow through which the anchor cable passed. An outer timber fixed to the forward surface of the stem to strengthen or protect it, or to provide better symmetry to the cutwater. On yachts, the well from which the vessel is directed. 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